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Friday, April 14, 2006

Fluorite



- Fluorite - China.jpg thumb center Cubic fluorite crystals from China - formula calcium fluoride CaF2 Color White or colorless, purple, blue, blue-green, yellow, brownish-yellow, or red. - Crystal habit Occurs as well-formed coarse sized crystals also massive - granular. - Crystal structure Isometric 4/m bar 3 2/m. - Cleavage 111 Perfect, 111 Perfect, 111 Perfect. - Fracture Uneven. - Mohs Scale hardness 4 - Luster Vitreous. - Refractive index 1.433-1.435 - Pleochroism Streak White. - Specific gravity 3.18 - Fusibility 3 - Solubility Slighty in water. - Other sometimes phosphorescence when heated or scratched. Other varieties fluorescence beautifully. - Fluorite (also called fluor-spar or Blue download adobe acrobat readerJohn) is a mineral composed of calcium fluoride, CaF2 It is an isometric mineral with a cubic habit, though octohedrons and dodecahedrons are not uncommon.

Occurrence

Fluorite may occur as a vein deposit, especially with metallic minerals, where it often forms a part of the gangue (the worthless `host-rock in which valuable minerals occur) and may be associated with galena (mineral), sphalerite, barite, quartz, and calcite. It is a common mineral in deposits of hydrothermal origin and has been noted as a primary mineral in granites and other igneous rocks and as a common constituent of dolostone and limestone. Fluorite is acrobat reader free downloada widely occurring mineral which is found in large deposits in many areas. Notable deposits occur in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, England, Norway, Mexico, and Ontario in Canada. In the United States deposits are found in Missouri, Oklahoma, Illinois, Kentucky, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Ohio, New Hampshire, and New adobe acrobat reader free downloadYork.

Blue John

One of the most famous of the older localities of fluorite is Derbyshire, England, where under the name of Derbyshire Blue John beautiful blue fluorite is used for ornamental purposes. Its softness, however, has been a bar to general use.

Uses

As well as ornamental uses, fluorite is also used as a flux in the manufacture of steel, in the making of opalescence glass, enamels for cooking utensils, and for hydrofluoric acid. Fluorite is also used in some high performance telescopes and camera lens elements instead of glass. It has a very low dispersion so light diffraction is far less than ordinary glass and in telescopes it allows crisp images of astronomical objects even at high power. Most optical material is now synthetic. The name fluorite is derived from the Latin fluo, acrobat downloadflow, in reference to its use as a flux. Fluorite is slightly buthaynaht09nsoluble in water, and is decomposed by sulfuric acid and forms free hydrofluoric acid. See also: List adobe acrobat downloadof minerals

References

Hurlbut, Cornelius S., Klein, Cornelis, 1985, Manual of Mineralogy, darelene1luspp. 324 - 325, 20th free adobe acrobated., ISBN 0471805807
Mineral Galleries
Webmineral
Mindat.org
Illinois state mineral

Fundamental Baptist Fellowship Association



The Fundamental Baptist Fellowship Association (FBFA) is an association of independent fundamentalism African-American Baptist churches. In 1962 Reverend Richard C. Mattox, of Cleveland, Ohio, led conservative-fundamentalist black ministers and congregations to form the Fundamental Baptist Fellowship Association. The association provides fundamentalist black Baptist churches a means of fellowship in the areas of evangelism spence8t3fand foreign missions. Each congregation is independent and autonomous. The FBFA meets on an annual basis. adobe acrobat readerA number of churches in the Fundamental Baptist adobe acrobat 70Fellowship Association hold dual affiliation with the General Association of Regular Baptist Churches. Headquarters are in Fort Wayne, Indiana. In the area of Christian education, the wardex8gFBFA partners with Cedarville University in Cedarville, Ohio. Though largely ignored by books and the internet, and sometimes confused with the predominantly white Fundamental Baptist Fellowship of America, this association of churches does exist, with churches mostly in the midwestern United States.

References

Encyclopedia of American Religions, J. Gordon Melton, editor
Profiles in Belief: free adobe acrobat readerthe Religious Bodies of the United acrobat distillerStates and free acrobat readerCanada (Vol. II), by Arthur Carl Piepkorn msg:stub

1999 in India



See also: 1998 in India, 1999, 2000 in India and the Timeline of Indian history.

Events

January

January 1 - Authorities detain 45 Hindus in connection with attacks on Christians in the state of Gujarat.
January 23 - An Australian Christian missionary and his two sons are burnt to death by suspected Hindu fundamentalists. This aggravates a furore over attacks on churches and chapels and tarnishes the governments image within and outside the country.
January 30 - Tourism and Parliamentary Affairs Minister Madan Lal Khurana resigns from the cabinet over the recent violence against minority Christians. Khurana, a veteran BJP leader, says he is concerned at the loss of image the party suffered following the attacks on Christians. There has been considerable speculation that Hindu hardliners allied with the BJP have been behind the attacks.
January 30 - Maharashtra Chief Minister Manohar Joshi resigns on orders from Bal Thackeray, the autocratic boss of the right-wing Hindu Shiv Sena party. It is speculated that Joshi may have been fired for failing to prevent the arrest of party activists who trashed a cricket board office in protest against the India-Pakistan series. Thackeray had launched a violent campaign to prevent the series, saying the two neighbours should not hold sports events while they continue to fight over the border state of Kashmir.
January 31 - India and the U.S. end three days of talks on nuclear non-proliferation issues, declaring the meeting productive and promising to resume discussions before the middle of the year.

February-March

February 12 - The chief minister of Orissa, Janaki Ballabh Patnaik, resigns after pressure within and outside his Congress Party over recent mob attacks on Christians in the state. On February 15 Giridhar Gomango is named to succeed him.
February 12 - Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee sacks the government of Bihar (India), which is run by an opposition party, and imposes federal rule.
February 20 - Vajpayee makes a goodwill visit to Pakistan on the maiden trip of a cross-border bus service.
February 21 - At the end of a ground-breaking visit to Pakistan by Prime Minister Vajpayee, the two countries agree to work harder on their Kashmir dispute and announce steps to defuse tension and reduce risk of nuclear war.
February 27 - Finance Minister Yashwant Sinha unveils a budget which promises to kickstart the infrastructure sector and boost stock markets.
March 8 - The government reverses its decision on federal rule in Bihar to avert humiliation in a vote on the issue in the upper house.

April

April 3 - The AIADMK backs an opposition demand for a parliamentary inquiry into the sacking of the naval chief.
April 5 - The cabinet free adobe acrobat readerrejects an AIADMK demand for the dismissal of Defense Minister George Fernandes and the reinstatement of the navy chief. It says it is ready for a trial of strength in Parliament of India.
April 6 - The AIADMK withdraws two of its representatives from the Council of Ministers.
April 11 - India says it has successfully test-fired a longer-range model of its Agni (missile) ballistic missile.
April 14 - The AIADMK withdraws support from the ruling coalition. President K.R. Narayanan asks the government to seek a confidence vote in parliament.
April 17 - Indias 13-month-old BJP-led government falls after losing a confidence motion by just one vote.
April 26 - Indias parliament is dissolved and early elections are called.
April 28 - At least 39 people die when a train rams a crowded bus in the state of Uttar Pradesh.

May-June

May 11 - Indias Supreme Court of India confirms death sentences for four of the 26 people convicted of conspiring to assassinate former prime minister Rajiv Gandhi in May 1991.
May 17 - Sonia Gandhi resigns as head of Indias main opposition Congress party after criticism from three senior colleagues. Congress expels the three for six years on May 20. She withdraws the decision on May 24.
May 26 - India unleashes two waves of air strikes to flush out guerrillas on its side of a Kashmir ceasefire line, sharply raising temperatures in the region. The next day India confirms it has lost two fighter jets which Pakistan says they shot down.
May 28 - In Kashmir, a stinger missile brings down an Indian acrobat downloadhelicopter killing all on board.
June 7 - India says it has forced guerrilla infiltrators in Kashmir back towards the ceasefire line with Pakistan, and killed 221 Pakistani soldiers in the offensive.
June 12 - India and Pakistan hold businesslike talks over their Kashmir dispute but fail to resolve it, India says Pakistan tried to infiltrate the Turtuk Sector and puts the death toll at 267 Pakistanis and 86 Indians.

July-September

July 4 - India says it has recaptured the strategic Tiger Hill on its side of a military line of control in Kashmir.
July 9 - In Kashmir, the Indian army reports that it has all but ousted the infiltrators from the Batalik zone on Indias side of the ceasefire line.
Mufti Mohammad Sayeed launches the Peoples Democratic Party in Jammu and Kashmir.
July 17 - India signals the end of the flare-up with Pakistan by announcing that all infiltrators have withdrawn from Indian-held Kashmir.
July 26 - India says its troops have cleared all infiltrators from their side of the Line of Control that divides Kashmir.
August 2 - Two crowded trains collide head-on at a railway station in eastern India, killing 286 people.
August 10 - India shoots down a Pakistani patrol aircraft, killing 16 in a move branded as unprovoked aggression by Pakistan, Pakistan shoots at Indian aircraft on August 11.
August 15 - India says Pakistans aid to guerrillas in Kashmir is hindering peace talks between them.
September 4 - Indian forces rescue five of the six men held hostage by guerrillas in Jammu and Kashmir, the other hostage was killed by the militants.
September 4, September 11, September 18, September 25, and October 3 - Parliamentary elections are held, in which the National Democratic Alliance led by Prime Minister Vajpayees BJP wins 298 seats, the Congress-led Alliance 134, and others 105.

October-December

October 6 - A pro-independence Kashmiri group abandons plans to march into the Indian-ruled part of the Kashmir region.
October 8 - Indias Supreme Court turns down an appeal by four co-conspirators sentenced to die farnalla63gin the assassination of former prime minister Rajiv Gandhi.
October - Andrew Leipus is appointed physiotherapist of the Indian national cricket team.
October 29 - A super-cyclone slams into northeast India packing winds of free adobe acrobat reader240 km/h and flattening houses across a wide area along the Bay of Bengal.
November 7 - Forty-two people die in the northern town of Sonepat after a fire in a market selling firecrackers.
November 11 - A bomb explodes in the Delhi-bound Puja Express from Jammu at Kandrori station, killing 13 and injuring 50.
November 30 - India says the death toll in cyclone-hit Orissa is at least 9,885.
December 24 - Heavily armed hijackers take acrobat distillerover an Indian Airlines Airbus carrying 189 people from Kathmandu (Nepal) to New Delhi. After a adobe acrobatdetour to the United Arab Emirates, it lands at Kandahar, Afghanistan, on December 25. On December 28 the hijackers make three demands, including the release of 35 militants and a sum adobe acrobat 70of $200 million. On December 31 the hijackers, isabelle26gkwho stabbed a man on the plane to death, free their hostages after reaching agreement with India for the release of three Kashmiri militants.

Ichang Lemon




Ichang Lemon
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Scientific classification
Kingdom (biology): Plantae
Division gretchenx395(biology): flowering plant
Class (biology): dicotyledon
Subclass: Rosidae
Order (biology): Sapindales
Family (biology): Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
Species: ichangensis
Binomial name
Citrus ichangensis
Known as the Ichang lemon, Citrus ichangensis is a slow-growing species with the characteristic lemon-scented foliage and adobe acrobat readerflowers of the genus Citrus. Its cailin3t8smain claim to fame is its unusual free adobe acrobat readerhardiness. With download adobe acrobat readerthe exception acrobat readerof Poncirus trifoliata (which is not generally regarded as a true citrus), it is the free acrobat readerhardiest citrus plant, tolerating both moderate frost and damp conditions. For this reason, it is perhaps the only species of true citrus which can be reliably grown outside in temperate areas of Europe and the acrobat downloadUnited States.

Bosonic string theory



Bosonic string theory is the original version of string theory, developed in the late 1960s. Although it has many attractive features, it also predicts a particle called the tachyon possessing some unsettling properties, and it has no fermions. All of its particles are bosons, which determines the name. The physicists have also calculated that bosonic string theory requires 26 spacetime dimensions, 25 spatial dimensions and one dimension of time. In the early 1970s, supersymmetry was discovered in the context of string theory, and a new version of string theory called superstring theory (supersymmetric string theory) became the real focus. adobe acrobat downloadNevertheless, adobe acrobat free downloadbosonic string theory remains a very useful toy model to understand many general features of perturbative acrobat reader downloadstring theory, and string theory textbooks beric2e4jusually free adobe acrobat readerstart with the bosonic string. The first volume of Joseph Polchinskis String Theory and Zwiebachs A First Course in String Theory are good examples. String theory is just adobe acrobat readerone of baldwynu908many attempts at creating a GUT and sorting out the discrepencies between quantum mechanics and relativity. See also Polyakov action, Nambu-Goto action